Migration has been a part of living being’s life. Animals and Birds have migration patterns that have to be followed for their sustenance. Human history also describes migration patterns of our ancestors from one place to another leading to rise and fall of civilizations. For Example: Aboriginals of Australia used to migrate from one place to another on the continent to replenish used resources. This migration pattern followed by them is meant to maintain balance in nature. You can find more help about immigration here www.lenderliabilitylawyer.com.
Fast forward to recent years the world is divided into seven continents which are further divided into several countries. The process of leaving one’s native country and moving to another country for residence is known as emigration and immigration is the drive of number of people moving from one country to another for work, or citizenship.
Immigration has been taking place from a long period of time. The reasons for immigration are:
- Natural Calamities: Nature’s fury can be extremely destroying. These destructions can de-stabilize everything. In situations as such people who survive are terrified to stay or they lose everything to the calamity. In such a scenario immigration to a safer place is desired. Massive earthquakes, flooding, storms, tsunamis, volcanic explosions, shortage of water etc. are some of the situations that trigger immigration patterns. Especially during ancient periods natural calamities are the number one cause of immigration.
- Wars and political unrest: World War I and II were the wars that were fought on a humongous scale. Large number of people migrated to escape the effects of wars and destruction. More recently political unrest caused due to fall of an autocratic ruler as seen in Egypt and Iraq. Army coups as seen in Pakistan or in some cases toppled and dysfunctional governments such as Somalia, the terror acts of religious fanatic groups such as Sudan, Syria, Palestine etc. are all reasons for Immigration.
- Economic Conditions: Worsening economic conditions, lack of jobs, recession, bankruptcy are some of the conditions that cause people to emigrate.
- There are also certain immigrants that reside in other countries for temporary amount of time for work. They are issued temporary work visas and on completion of the visa duration, they have to return back to their countries.
To counter the above problems UK has started implementing stringent immigration laws. There are different set of rules for immigration from European Union, Commonwealth countries and rest of the world.
United Kingdom Immigration Laws
- Immigration Act 1971:
The immigration legislation started with Aliens Act that was passed in the year of 1905. Many acts were legislated in the following years. Commonwealth Immigrants acts 1968 allowed citizens of commonwealth countries to enter Uk if they possess proof of birth in Britain. But it was Immigration Act of 1971 that stated same rules and restrictions for all the people no matter if they belonged to commonwealth or not. This act was further amended in the year 1988 to include a clause of allowing only one partner of a person to enter UK in the case of more than one wife.
- Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002
This act is updated from the previous asylum acts of 1996 and 1999. The 2002 act is important because this is the act that started evaluative examinations for claiming citizenships and also started taking interviews to eradicate fake marriages. The act was updated in 2004 to forbid ruining travel related documents. The act of 2006 applied stringent pointers for granting visas and reduced appeal support in term of rejection.
- UK Borders Act 2007:
This act was passed mainly to tackle the surge of illegal migrants entering United Kingdom by vesting powers in hands of Border forces. This act was updated in the year 2009 to grant citizenship only after a stay of eight years and citizenship appealed from a marriage would require the marriage to be of five years or more.
- Immigration Act 2014:
This act was passed to control and prohibit entry of illegal migrants. This act also enables stricter measure to avoid and detect fake marriages. It has a rule where a tenant has to ask for legal documents before providing a house for a tenant, this will help detection of illegal migrants. Made it easier to deport people, also imposed a charge on temporary workers on work visas to contribute towards National Health Service. The number of appeals have reduced from seventeen to four.
- Immigration Act 2016:
The latest act by UK in implementing stringent laws for immigration has been passed on twelfth May 2016. With the passing of Brexit, the UK has left the European Union, which means it no longer requires to adhere to immigrant friendly laws of EU. With that in place the 2016 immigration was passed which prohibited possibilities of accessing basic facilities like housing, creating bank accounts or able to drive with license. This will enable to manage the illegal immigrant dilemma that UK is facing.